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Arab efforts for development naval sciences Ancient Egypt

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Gamal Adnan

Arab efforts for development naval sciences Ancient Egypt] said: that knowledge is the key of success, which led to the workmanship of measurement, that was considered the highest produced by Omanis using astronomy to take advantage of sailing on the high seas, where the marks and colors were erased, the ships found large ocean and sky was full of signs of zodiak, which sailors used in measurement to determine the places and directions. They sought formation of polaris star, and used the height and decline of star on the horizon in the measurement so they were certain of spherical earth, and sought information of the south by star Sohail, and added to each Khun name of the star which they believed to rise there and made stars of compass-circle- [Deira] depending on the time science and enabled by which to measure the height of the star, and defined This rise by Zam , and put Zij tables, and compiled the books about them, and knew the nature of the tides, they defined the signs and signals for the places , and studied the properties of bays and animals, fish, waves and the winds of seas and the travel and closing times, they divided the year into three hundred and sixty-four days, they called new naval year [Niruz] which began with the rising status of Crown [sco]at the time of dawn, they defined the places suitable for anchoring, dangerous places and the distances between every two ports, projective capes, they invented the suitable sails of ship for the degrees of strength or weakness of the wind, so that ship became multi-speed and defined dangerous animals, these saved a lot of time and effort in season ,ships has spared a lot of time, which led Sailing to repeat several times, the cities which participated in this trade became rich.

compass circle

the cities developed because they exploited natural resources, which found markets by ships for their products, and the other cities perfected their industries to contribute responding demands of consumers and satisfying their tastes ever-improvable, these countries were tied by the bond of integration, which knew industry, they turned into industrial cells, and participated in the trade to draw a part from wealth, had got a great rank integration the vessels played the great role to transfer raw materials from areas of production or extraction to areas of manufactures and to transfer manufactures from the areas of industry to areas of consumption to complete the decrease in the countries which do not know the industry and turned that country into the industrial cells, and Participated in the trade to draw from wealth, therefore the merchants had got a great rank, as alJahez said:

compass circle

they became like kings on their beds because they turning of the countries’ economy Therefore States buckled to their legs and set up systems to protect trade which was mainstay of the economy, and reserved vessels in order to explore the seas for opposing danger of the pirates and devoted to the ships patrolling the water to repel the pirates and placed at each port center for collection of taxes and duties on goods imported or exported also included these systems welcome the ship and to provide hospitality for sailors and traders to encourage trade, so owners sails by their ships in the morning and the evening, despite the dangers that beset them such as storms, hurricanes, tsunamis and the predator animals, which attacked the ships, with which they knew how to deal .

سمير يوسف

أول صحفى فى النمسا منذ سنة 1970 عمل فى الصحافة وعمره 18 سنة فى جريدة الجمهورية والمساء وحريتى ثم الجرائد الألمانية دير إشبيجل وفى النمسا جريدة الإخو تسليتومج لمدة عشرون عاما وفى سنة 1991 اصدر اول صحيفة باللغة العربية والألمانية وهى جريدة الوطن لمدة 11 سنة ، عمل مراسل جريدة الجمهورية والمساء فى النمسا لمدة 31 سنة.

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